Methods and principles of factory layout

2022-10-31 48

Concept: Within a given facility, arrange the location of multiple economic activity units to ensure smooth workflow and logistics (minimum logistics cost), high efficiency, long-term and high output. Scope of facilities: generally refers to a factory, a workshop, a department store, an office building or a restaurant, etc. Economic unit: refers to any entity that needs to occupy space, including machines, workstations, passageways, tables, storerooms, tool racks and people. Methods and principles of factory layout 1. Importance of factory layout: whether the layout of facilities is reasonable or not has a great impact on the production and operation of enterprises: the cost that affects the operation of enterprises (mainly refers to logistics costs); Affect the efficiency of enterprise operation; Affect the utilization rate of facilities and equipment (site, space); Affect safety, environment, working methods, etc. Principle of facilities layout: service for production and operation, shortest distance, single flow direction (flow direction of people and materials), three-dimensional, safe and flexible. Common production layout forms: linear production line, U-shaped production line II, basic type of factory layout. The layout of equipment or production units generally depends on the organizational form of production operation process, mainly including: Process Layout, Product Layout, Fixed Layout and Hybrid Layout. 1. Principle of Process Specialization Layout The layout of production units or equipment shall be arranged according to the characteristics of production process. In this layout mode, similar production units or equipment are put together, and the equipment is arranged according to the type rather than the processing route. It is suitable for industries with low standardization of products and services, and its batch size is very small. For example, manufacturing extension workshop, casting workshop and hot processing workshop. In addition, the equipment with high noise, dust, pollution, high temperature and some special environmental requirements is only suitable for professional layout according to the process. 2. Principle of object specialization: Arrange the layout of production units or equipment according to the technological process of manufacturing (or providing) products (or services). Corresponding to the specialized production organization form of product objects, its purpose is to make a large number of products and services quickly pass through the system. Equipment is arranged in sequence according to the processing route or processing sequence of one or several products (whose processing routes are basically similar), which is usually called production line, and the products are in large quantities. The whole manufacturing/service process is decomposed into a series of standardized operations, which are completed by specialized personnel and equipment, and are suitable for the highly standardized product manufacturing/service process. 3. Mixed layout of products and process objects Specialized layout of two types of mixing, the most common. Many products have a certain batch size, but they are not large enough to form a single production line, and series products often have processing similarities, so the completely "disordered" facilities under a single piece can be arranged in an "orderly" way to some extent, and mixed arrangement can be adopted. For example, the process objects of parts are professionally arranged, and the product objects used in the assembly workshop are professionally arranged. Mainly: Group unit arrangement. 4. Fixed layout The location of its processing object is fixed, and the production workers and equipment are transferred with the location of the processed product. It is a layout form adopted in major engineering projects and large-scale product production. Such as engineering construction, aircraft factory, shipyard, heavy machinery factory, etc. Such as weight, volume, physical location, etc. Therefore, it can only be produced in a single piece or in a very small batch. Large-scale projects: roads and buildings; Large-scale product manufacturing: the final assembly production of aircraft, rockets, ships, locomotives, etc. Third, the method of factory layout is to make the general layout of the factory according to the volume of materials in each workshop. Workshops with large traffic volume are close to each other, and vice versa. This method is to arrange the workshop, facilities and production service units of the factory according to the general flow direction and transportation volume of raw materials, work-in-process and other materials in the production process, and to compile the material flow diagram. The flow direction of materials should be indicated on this diagram.